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Resettlement of Armenians in Russian sources

  



About the historical roots of the problem of Nagorno-Garabagh, an integral part of the history of Azerbaijan and occupied by Armenia, the ethnic composition of this region the different versions that are incompatible with each other were sounded at different times. Even some Armenian historians falsify the historical truth at unbelievable degree and some versions of illusion nature about Garabagh as one of historical provinces of Armenia is put forward. In fact, the truth about the coming of Armenian to these lands later was proved in the historical sources, scientific research and also reflected in the archaeological materials. There are many Russian authors confirming it in their works.
Now that is the subject of the disputes and conflicts Garabagh as an Azerbaijani khanate was included in Russia according to Kurekchay Treaty concluded between the commander of Russian Imperial troops general Tsitsianov and Garabagh Khan Ibrahim khan on May 14, 1805. In the second paragraph of Kurekchay Treaty the emperor gave the guarantee of maintaining the integrity of the country of Garabagh khan and his heirs (Акты, собранные Кавказской Археографической Коммиссией, т. II, под ред. А. Берже. Тифлис, 1868, sənəd 1436, с. 702-705).

However, the tsarist government after some period in 1822 violated this paragraph of the Treaty, had abolished the Garabagh khanate as a political factor and made it the ordinary province of the empire. However, the imperial government, which gave the guarantee “for maintaining the integrity of the country of Ibrahim khan and his heirs” did not separated territory of Garabagh khanate from other Azerbaijani provinces just from the administration view-point and being Moslem province.
Even the pro-Armenian imperial government had to take into account the undeniable fact that the province of Garabagh was Muslim. When Garabagh khanate annexed to Russia in 1805 only 1/5 of its population was the Armenians.
In the focus of the colonial policy of tsarism in the Caucasus was the policy of resettlement at the beginning of the XIX century the Armenians from Turkey and Iran to the Caucasus, in particular, in West Azerbaijan and Garabagh.
Just in the years 1804-1813 and 1826-1828 during and after the Russo-Iranian wars the mass resettlement of Armenians from Iran and South Azerbaijan in the South Caucasus, as well as at the result of resettlement of large number of Armenians in Garabagh their number began to increase from year to year. During 1826-1828 in the course of the Russia-Iran war 18 thousand Armenian families moved to the South Caucasus from Iran and southern regions of Azerbaijan, including Garabagh (МИЭБГК, т. VII, ч. I. , с. 393).

Upon completion of the above-mentioned wars according to the terms of Turkmenchay Peace Treaty concluded between Russia and Iran, the smooth transfer of the Armenians from the territory of Iran was allowed. This act actually gave extensive opportunities and allowed Armenians from Iran to move to the South Caucasus, including Garabagh in mass. N. N. Savrov wrote about the main purpose of tsarist government in resettlement of the Armenians in the South Caucasus, including Garabagh and its impact on the demographic situation in the Caucasus: "We began the colonial policy in Trans Caucasus not from resettlement of the Russian population but a people alien to us... From 1828 to 1830 we resettled more than 40 thousand Armenian population from Iran and over 84 thousands from Turkey in Transcaucasian territories and provided them with best lands in Yelizavetpol and Irevan provinces where Armenians was in minority. In order to resettle them we allotted them over 200 thousands desyatin of land purchased owners land form them from Moslems for an amount of 2 million manats.
The mountainous part of Yelizavetpol province (means mountainous Garabagh) and shores of the lake Goycha (Sevan) were settled by Armenians. The total number of those who moved, together with the non-official migrants has exceeded 200 thousand." As a result of these resettlements at the beginning of the XX century, from 1.3 million Armenians living in the Caucasus more than a million was not “ aboriginal residents of the region" and were resettled by us (Шавров Н. Н. Новая угроза русскому делу в Закавказье. СПб. , 1911, с. 59-61).

In this regard, the Russian historian scientist V. A. Velicko wrote: "Paskevich was sent to Iran to Colonel Lazarev for invitation of approximately 40 thousand Armenians moved from Iran to Transcaucasian territories. Patriarch of Echmiadzin also participated in this operation. So, he gave instructions to transfer Armenian priests from Iran. According to Adrianopol Treaty more than 100 thousand Armenians moved from Turkey. One archbishop from Erzurum named Karapet brought with self 70 thousand Armenians. After that, the transfer of Armenians from Moslem countries to Russia turned to be continuous and even last few years became mass (Глинка С. Описание переселения армян Азербайджанских в пределы России. Баку, «Елм». 1990, с. 81).

Another Russian scientist S. Glinka in connection with the resettling of Armenians wrote: "On March 9, 1828, the last Russian troops left Tabriz ... the Armenians from different villages under Turkmenchay Treaty began to move to Garabagh.. Lazerev, who kept the prince Arqutinski Dolgoruki in Tabriz for the transfer of Armenians, went to Maragha, Armenians impatiently waiting for him, accompanied by a number of officials (В. Л. Величко. Кавказ. Русское дело и междуплеменные вопросы. Баку, «Елм», 1990).

At the same time the author of the idea of resettlement of the Armenians A. S. Griboyedov wrote about it: "We had few times thought about the matter of relaxing of Moslems from the situation that they will fall after resettlement of Armenians here, with the concern of Moslems that Armenians will capture these lands forever (Грибоедов А. С. Записка о переселении армян из Персии в наши области, т. 2. Москва, 1971).

Thus, according to the Turkmenchay Treaty the demographic situation was significantly changed at the result of resettlement of Armenians from Iran and Turkey in the territory of Garabagh and other Azerbaijani provinces. In the Armenian province established at place of Irevan khanate the share of Azerbaijani Turks in 1828 was 73. 8% but it decreased to 46.2% in 1834-35 (Georgian MDTA, chapter 2. 1, case 3859, p. 314, list 20).
According to Census of 1832, there were 32.4 thousand (64 8%) Azerbaijanis in Garabagh province and 17.4 thousand (34 8%) Armenians registered. Thus the Armenian population during the short period of time had increased four times compared to 8 4% in 1823. For further calculations in Shusha province in the late 80-es specific weight of Azerbaijanis decreased to 41.5%, and the share of the Armenians increased to 58.2%. According to the All-Russian Census of 1897, these indicators were 53% and 45% respectively (Кавказский календарь Российской империи 1897, ЛXIII – Елизаветская губерния. СПб. , 1904. , с. 3).

As a result of the mass resettlements in territories of present-day territory of Shusha region in Nagorno-Garabagh, at the late 80-es of the XIX century, the number of Armenians constituted 58% of the population (Кавказский календарь на 1896, V отд, с. 48-61). Even after the mass continued resettlements the Armenians constituted only 79% of the population of Nagorno-Garabagh Autonomous Oblast (DGAR). (События вокруг НКАО в кривом зеркале фальсификаторов (сборник материалов), Бакы, 1989, с. 6-7).
Despite the gradual demographic changes taking place in Garabagh, until 1840 the territory of the former khanate officially was called as "the province of Garabagh", was recognized as a Muslim province, together with the rest of the Azerbaijani lands was ruled by the chief of the military district of "the Muslim states of the Caucasus". The headquarter of this chief was in Garabagh, located in the town of Shusha. Therefore, in the book published by 4 main ministries of the Russian Empire. i.e. the military, foreign affairs, internal affairs and finance ministries «Обoзренние Российских владений за Кавказом» (Description of Russian colonies in the Caucasus) Garabagh was placed in the section of the book as Muslim province. Because Garabagh khanate was annexed to Russia as Azerbaijani not an Armenian province.
In 1840, after the reforms, "Shusha" district was established in "the province of Garabagh" which included the present territory of Nagorno-Garabagh. However, this administrative territory was included neither in Georgia-Imereti province, nor the province of Yerevan created later but in , "Kaspi" province, uniting the Northern Azerbaijani territories. Since 1868, the Shusha district was united to Yelizavetpol (Ganja) province. This province like Baku province agin united in the Northern territories of Azerbaijan. In 1917 Shusha was included in Yelizavetpol province, subordinated to Special Transcaucasian Committee during the temporary government, in 1918 - 1920 was included in the province of Ganja, in the structure of the Azerbaijan Democratic Republic (Sources of History of Azerbaijan. Baku, 1989, p. 276)..
Thus, as it can be seen, despite the colonial policy of tsarism the realized Armenian resettlements and other factors even made the fact of belonging of Nagorno-Garabagh territory to Azerbaijan as undeniable fact. However, the Armenians resettled in territories of Azerbaijan have always tried to usurp the new lands and created serious problems for the people of Azerbaijan in different periods. In order to achieve their dirty objectives the Armenians shed a blood of thousands of innocent people and destroyed cities and villages.



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