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Fauna of the Garabagh

  


Garabagh, the charming and beautiful corner of Azerbaijan having been occupied by Armenia, is a specific natural area of Lesser Caucasus having very rare and unrepeated climate, plant cover and animals. Garabagh has had prevalence in rich biodiversity among 4 natural areas of Azerbaijan with animal world before occupation by Armenia. Land vertebral had prevalence especially among fauna species in occupied territories. Fate of rare and endangered species settled in landscape and biotopes related to Mountainous and Lowland Garabagh which enters the natural area of the Lesser Caucasus causes more concerns.
But 25 thousand species of the existing fauna fall to arthropods and 630 species to the part of the vertebral fauna in Azerbaijan. All fauna consists of 25630 species and semi-species.
There were 5307 species of fauna, which comprises 20.7% of the general fauna of this area of Nagorno Garabagh being under occupation of Armenia and adjacent territories.  
From fauna species in this reservations one can met a wolf, a jackal, a field pig, badger, bezoar goat, roe, hare and different rodents: 
From birds quail, wood-pigeon, pigeon, partridge, turaj can be met. Also in these  preservations: 
1. Field pig,
2. Grey bear,
3. Bezoar goat,
4. Roe,
5. Wolf,
6. Fox,
7. Jackal,
8. Leopard (probability it was) and etc. small rodents, from birds tetra, quail, wood-pigeon, partridge and predators birds had settled.

One of territories being under occupation is Dashalty state preservation. Ultimate goal on the creation of preservation was protection of "Topkhana" forest state fund and roe, field pig,  squirrel, hare, wolf, fox, jackal etc settled here. Animals, kind (of) has consisted with them protecting of the bird.
Class of insects settled in the territories of occupied Nagorno Garabagh and its adjacent regions (Lachin, Aghdam, Fizuli, Zangilan, Gubadly, Jabrail, Kalbajar) comprise 70 species from from Insecta representatives.
With its natural condition and plant cover Nagorno Garabagh and its adjacent regions sharply differing from other regions of Azerbaijan has very rich invertebrate animal world.  Here approximately 4500-5000 species of the insects have spread until the occupation of Nagorno Garabagh and its adjacent regions. This kind organizes 20% of the general arthrohods which have spread in Azerbaijan. Because 56 species of insect fauna in the occupied areas are from rare, endemic and endangered species, many of them were included in International Nature Protection Union’s Red List and the Red Book of Azerbaijan.  
There are many species of endemic and relict, even being new for science and faun invertebrate animals, which never found in any corner of Azerbaijan, are many in number. This majority shows itself in all groups of invertebrate animal being inhabitants of this area. Therefore Nagorno Garabagh and its adjacent regions have been in the centre of attention of Azerbaijan entomologist as interesting territory. They have carried out comprehensive researches in these territories, especially before beginning of war here. For this purpose expeditions were organized to regions of Aghdam, Shusha, Aghdara, Khojavand, Kalbajar, Tartar, Jabrail, Gubadly, Zangilan, Fizuli periodically, and  many species of invertebrate animals have been gathered. The most spreads from gathered invertebrate and having the widest and rich species were butterflies and insects.
It was defined in the result of definition of materials and its working just from butterflies 28 species of rare and endangered butterflies were spread in Nagorno Garabagh. They area:  
1. Yellowish-grey shibyayeyan,
2. Yellow pelosia,
3. Dark ayija,
4. Beautiful ayijca,
5. Clean ayijca,
6. Yellow grey ayija
7. Philip ayijca,
8. Lady ayija,
9. Black ayija,
10. Karelian ayija,
11. Daurija ayija,
12. Yellow stripy ayija,
13. White stripy ayija,
14. Turan ayija,
15. Insect like reddish yellow shibyayeyan,
16. Four pointed  shibyayeyan ayija,
17. Red dotted ayija,
18. Dark Red ayija,
19. Hera ayija,
20. Hebe ayija,
21. Meadow ayija,
22. Red ayija etc.

Moreover from useful insects Brokonids, Khalsids, Ichneumanids and Bee like have been spread in Nagorno Garabagh and it adjacent areas.
Unfortunately, in the result of war carried out by Armenians biotopes and biosenoses which settled by rare and endangered insects the plants and shown useful insects, used by them as food, were destroyed.
Garabagh is rich with its ichtyofauna. So, 14 species from 62 species of fishes lived in the sweet waters of Azerbaijan had lived in Nagorno Garabagh and its surroundings.  And its comprises 22.6% of the sweet fishes living here. It includes mainly: 
1. Trout
2. Khramulya,
3. The Kura shirbit,
4. Gyjovchu,
5. Mursa,
6. Ilsihken and chilpaqcha,
7. Zardapar,
8. Caucasian wide head,
9. The Kura silver fish,
10. Caucasian silver fish,
11. Flat abdomen (Yastiqarin),
12. Cheki,
       13.The Kura salmon etc fishes have been included in. 

4 species (40%) from 10 species of amphibians of the republic and 35 (53%) from 62 species of reptiles of the republic were settled in Garabagh area of Azerbaijan being under occupation.  The same species are the following:
1. Green,
2. Land frog,
3. Lake frog,
4. Simple tree frog 
5. Little Asian frog,
6. Caspian tortoise,
7. Mediterranean tortoise,
8. Caucasian pangolin,
9. Grass-snake,
10. Worm like blind snake,
11. West sleepyhead,
12. Water-snake,
13. Transcaucasia talkha,
14. Grey snake,
15. Viper etc

From 107 species of mammals of Azerbaijan 61 species were settled in Nagorno Garabagh and surrounding  regions. And it organized 57% fauna of mammals existing in Azerbaijan which inhabited in occupied regions of Nagorno Garabagh and surrounding regions  before Armenian aggression. These are species included in the mammals class (Mammalia): 
1. Parasite eaters,
2. White breast hedgehog,
3. Small gostebek,
4. Grey teeth of the Caucasus,
5. Small white teeth,
6. Small flatnose,
7. Simple long ear bat,
8. Tricolor shabpara,
9. Night bat,
10. Iran squirrel,
11. India tirandaz
12. Suleysin,
13. Little Asian Arabic hare,
14. Grey rat,
15. Black rat,
16. Field mouse,
17. European snow mouse,
18. Badger,
19. Grey bear,
20. Wolf,
21. Jackal,
22. Fox,
23. Leopard,
24. Talish cat,
25. Caucasian forest cat,
26. Lynx,
27. Field pig,
      28. Roe etc. 


Fauna of birds was richer than other aminals in areas of before occupation. Thus from 367 species of birds available in Azerbaijan 200 were found in the given area.  Distribution of  birds over the area was unequal. It comprised 54.4.% of the ornitofauna of Azerbaijan. In upland areas (2000 km above the sea level) were precipitous cliffs, stone piles, meadows of Alps and subalp. In these parts:

1. Caspian ular,
2. Sheep taker,
3. Golden eagle,
4.   Grave eagle,
5. Big eagle
6. Little eagle,
7. Black griffon,
8. Tetra bird,
9. White-headed griffon
10. Raven,
11. Red beak
12.  Quail,
13. Partridge,
14. Mountain owl etc. can be found.

Over 100 species of birds were living in the mountain forest (400-2200 m in the height above sea level). Birds living here: 
1. Quail taker
2. Tetra taker,
3. The simple falcon,
4. The tetra bird,
5. The woodpeckers,
6. The sultan,
7. The forest sparrow etc. can be shown as an example.

In mountain sparse drought and forest and shrubbery areas: 
1. Grey partridge, 
2. Simple gur-gur,
3. Black headed oats bird,
4. Alachahra
5. Silvi,
6. Black hen etc. could be found


But in Araz long semi desert and steppes: 
1. Chobanaldadan,
2. Black-browed,
3. Bagugala,
4. Wild duck,
5. Grey,
6.   Forelock,
7. Sky larks of field
8. Turaj,
9. Quail,
10. Field hachaguyruq jullut
11. Little bazgak.
Species of birds was richer in these territories during migration. Rook starling, field valamirgushu etc. species of predator birds were spread.


Some birds lived in the given territories during migration. Predator birds like zagcha, field valamirgushu etc were in big numbers. Some birds living in areas occupied by Armenians were included in the Red book of Azerbaijan and the international Nature Protection Union’s Red List. They are 22 species:
1. Black stork,
2. Eagle of river,
3. White tail,
4. Sea delta,
5. Tetra taking hawk,
6. Turkustan hair,
7. Field eagle,
8. Big eagle
9. Grave eagle,
10. Golden eagle
11. Sheep taker
12. Black griffon
13. Snake eater
14. Field belibagli; 
15. Belobam simple falcon,
16. Field muymul,
17. Caucasian tetra,
18. Tural,
19. Simple dimdik bazdak  

Besides the rare and endemic species of birds in Garabagh, which is distinguished with rich nature, flora and fauna, the endangered birds were protected in various preserve and reservations.  But Armenian aggression besides outing an end on life and wishes of thousands of people, it perished the fine pearls of the nature, made a damages not just on our country but on world, which can not be replaced with anything.  Part of the same rare birds is following:
The area of Nagorno Garabagh and surrounding areas being under Armenian occupation comes to Natural areas of Lesser Caucasus having rich biodiversity.   Apparently, starting from insects to representatives of mammals the diversity of endangered rare species at the same time comprises in general the 25-30% of the animals settled in this natural area, where fauna species included in the International Nature Protection Union’s Red List, being endemic and relic for Caucasian and Azerbaijani territory. Presence of such endemic conditions shows that the Caucasus region is region not just of Azerbaijan, but in general of a region emerging of new species of the Caucasus region as a whole. 





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