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History of conflict

  


Historical facts show that till the XİX century, not only in Karabakh, but in whole Azerbaijan not s single Armenians lived. Their settlement in this area served the private political interests of the Russian Empire. Events taking place in all of the Eastern Europe in XIX century, as well as in  Russia (Russia-Turkey, Russia-Iran war), led to gradual weakening of the positions of northern neighbor in the region. Russia seriously concerned about  presence of Turkic and Muslim countries in the southern borders and that is why there began to think about the idea  of realization of the settlement of Armenians in the Northern Azerbaijan.
After the signing of Treaties Gulistan in 1813 and Turkmenchay in 1828 the process of settlement of Armenians at Azerbaijani territories took a mass form. During this period, from Turkey 86 thousand and 40 thousand Armenians from Iran shifted to present territory of Armenia, histological western Azerbaijan. Armenians were mostly settle din Nakhichevan, Yerevan and Karabakh khanates. Even after that efforts to further disintegration of Azerbaijan was continued and the Armenian region of was created here. It is true, later  this province was abolished in 1846, however, the process of resettlement of Armenians on the territory of Azerbaijan had the negative track in the history.

Settlement of Armenians in the Caucasus have been implemented in stages at different times. Nearly 200 years ago, Russian Czar signed a decree on the transfer of a part of the Armenian population at Derbent and Guba. In this Decree named "On privileges of Armenians of  Derbent and Muskir and right for freedom of movement" a lot of rights were given to Armenians and it was noted that in order to improve their living conditions their settlement  in the fertile lands was  important. In 1723 the Russian tsar Peter I signed a decree on the allocation of places for the resettlement of the Armenians on the basis of an agreement dated September 12, at Baku, Derbent, and Guba regions. In 1726 Ekaterina II issued a decree, which expressed the need to support Armenians and show them special mercy.
In 1729 by the decree of the Russian Emperor, a group of Armenian maliks adopted Russian citizenship. In 1799 Tsar Pavell I instructed Kartli-Kacheti kingdom for help in the settlement of Armenians in the territory of Gazakh.  
The transfer of Armenians at Azerbaijani territories was not reflected just in separate decrees but in inter-state treaties, too. In Turkmenchay peace Treaty concluded in 1828 between Russia and Iran an article was reflected that the Armenians living in Iran are given the right to move independently to the Russian territory. Thus, the foundation for settlement of Armenians in the territories of Azerbaijan was created. When said territories of Russia it means territories of Azerbaijan, which is considered close to Iran. Turkish-Russian War in 1828 -1829 it was agreed about the resettlement of Armenians in Turkey in Azerbaijan. In order to accelerate the implementation of it 
a special committee was established in Russia and general rules consisting of 12 Article were determined. 
The main purpose of this policy, which refers to wills of Peter , which consisted of disintegration of the territory of Azerbaijan from ethnic point of view and by settling here the Christian peoples
to prevent threats that may come from the south. Thus, gradually, the Armenians were settled in the territories of Azerbaijan, where the best conditions were created for them and fertile lands were  allocated. 
According to calculations of the well-known Russian statistics officer I. Chopin, just at the beginning of the XIX century only in the city of Yerevan 2400 Azerbaijani families, 12 thousand people lived. After seizure of city by the Russians despite of migration of some of people to Iran the great majority of the population was Azerbaijanis. Thus, for the information of year 1829, just in Yerevan city 4/5 of the population, or 80 percent of the population was Azerbaijanis. According to census held in Russian empire for the first time, in 1897 313,178 Azerbaijani lived in Western Azerbaijan in Yerevan province. However, these figures changed completely a few years later. 
After settling of Armenians in the territories of Azerbaijan, they began to think about creating their own state. The result was that the Armenians carried out by the mass acts of genocide in Azerbaijan in 1905-1906. During these years, they killed in mass Azerbaijanis in Baku, Tbilisi, Yerevan, Nakhchivan, Ganja, Karabakh, Zangezur and committed terrible crimes. Historical sources confirmed that the Armenians during the events completely razed to the ground  75 villages in the Zangezur, Shusha, Azerbaijan Javanshir and Jabrayil and  destroyed more than 200 residential precinct in Yerevan and Baku provinces. 

Since the creation of republic without "capital" Armenian chauvinists committed mass killings in provinces settled by the majority of Azerbaijanis like Loru-Pambak and Sorayel provinces, Zangezur, Goycha and other places. The facts show that, during 1918-1920 when in the Republic of Armenia the power was under solid-nationalists  they could significantly achieve the policy of    "Armenia  without Turks ". At the same time as a result of atrocities committed against Azerbaijanis, 565 thousand of 575 thousand Azerbaijanis living in the territory of present-day Armenia were killed or forced from their homes. After the establishment of the Soviet Armenia only 60 thousand of them could return to their native land.
During the months of March-April 1918 in Baku, Shamakhi, Mugan, Guba, Lankaran  thousands Azerbaijanis were killed, tens of thousands of people have been driven out from their lands by Armenians. During this period, the mass genocide acts committed by Armenians in Baku and Shamakhi were more terrible. 30 thousand people were killed with special cruelty and brutality in Baku. 58 villages of Shamakhi turned into ruins, 7 thousand people were killed (1653 of them women, 965 people were children), 122 villages with Muslims population in Guba were burned and destroyed. More than 150 villages located in the territory of Nagorno-Karabakh were razed to the ground. The operation carried out by Armenians in the villages from the tragic scale was the most severe events in the history of the world. In Zangezur destroying with brutality 115 villages in the same way Armenians plundered and burned the 211 villages in Yerevan province, and 92 Kars. All this proves once again that the history of settlement of the Armenians in Azerbaijan served to the disintegration of our historical lands, destruction of Azerbaijanis as nation and prevention of the existence of an independent state. The Armenians were just means in realization of the most brutal offensive in these processes. The only purpose of acts of genocide and mass deportation was to prevent the formation of powerful Muslim and the Turkish state in the South Caucasus. Both Gulistan and Turkmenchay Treaties once confirmed it. Attempts to divide the territories of Azerbaijan from an ethnic point of view will ultimately lead to the collapse of the country in respect of political and geographical views. What a painful, but the historical chronology of events that happen and its  analysis confirm that part of these plans was implemented.

At the beginning of the XX century, the logical result of the processes taking place in the South Caucasus led to situation when at the eve of the foundation of the Soviet government  a great part of Azerbaijan's territories were under the Armenians. Historical sources clearly indicated the complete absence of the Republic of Armenia. The interests of the some superpowers required the creation of the Armenian state in South Caucasus. And its most serious results were faced and lived by Azerbaijani people. At the end of 1920, after the establishment of Soviet power in Armenia, the Armenians began to implement their century-long will, the creation of the Armenian state and acting with territorial claims to neighbors. During 70-year long period of Soviet power Armenians extended their territories at the expense of Azerbaijani lands, and their claims in this direction gradually increased more.
In provinces of West Azerbaijan, which mainly were populated by Azerbaijanis in the past, in   Zangibasar, Vedibasar, Zangezur, Goycha, Agbaba, Darachichak, Sisian, Gafan, Qamarli, Garagoyunlu, Qırkhbulaq, Sharur, Surmali, Seidli, Sardarabad, Abaran, Garnibasar and other lands not a single Azerbaijani left but those lands fixed in our memory as the ancient Azeri habitations.

At the end of 60-es of the last century - the beginning of 70-es the issue of annexation of Nagorno-Karabakh Autonomous Oblast to Armenian SSR was a part of issues discussed in the Kremlin and even in the Political Bureau. Armenians continued to implement efforts to annex Azerbaijani lands  to Armenia with the help of their patrons. In May 1969, Supreme Soviet of this country adopted a decision on annexation some villages in the territory of the Kazakh and several other regions to Armenia. This decision was affirmed by the Supreme Soviet of the USSR, too. However, appointment of Heydar Aliyev as the first secretary of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Azerbaijan Soviet Socialist Republic did not allow implementation of this decision. It is not difficult to understand how the decision of the legislative body of a huge country like the USSR was not implemented. However Heydar Aliyev did a great risk for the sake of national interests of the people of Azerbaijan and prevented annexation of Azerbaijani lands to Armenia. However, due to indifferent attitude of the leadership of Azerbaijan in 1986, some of the areas specified in the decision were annexed to neighboring Armenia.

In 1977 the commission worked on the new Constitution of the Soviet Union offered annexation of  the Nagorno-Karabakh Autonomous Oblast to Armenian SSR being separated from  Azerbaijan SSR. And first secretary of Central Committee of Communist Party of Republic of Azerbaijan Heydar Aliyev, representing the country in the commission strongly rejected the suggestion that  prevented its implementation.
In 1985, being elected to the post of Secretary-General of the Central Committee of CPSU Mikhail Gorbachev was doing its utmost for the realization of this intention offensive. In person of M. Gorbachev the Armenians found the political patron in the person of the country's first
man and tried to use this chance maximum. In 1988 the Armenians already started to implement their hostile policy against Azerbaijanis openly. The conflict started with killing of two Azerbaijanis in Karabakh, destroying of  Topkhana forest, soonest turned to military operations in the light of ongoing conflict, and shown how serious a problem was. Processes were taking place so rapidly that Azerbaijanis could not find an opportunity to understand the logic of Gorbachev's indifference in exchange of diamonds presented to him by Armenians and removal of great part of Azerbaijani territory from control and also incompetent policies of the local government. And the geography of the conflict was expanded day by day. In 1989, the Supreme Soviet of the Soviet Socialist Republic of Armenia adopted a decision on the Nagorno-Karabakh's annexation of this country without any legal basis. This, in fact, was annexation of the territory of Azerbaijan. Armenians taken the struggle tactics to the military aggression and in this sense the mass protest actions in Azerbaijan could not change the direction of the events.
Of course, the support of the external forces played a greater role in realization of aggressive policy of Armenians. In this sense, efforts of then Soviet leadership are particularly noticeable. In 1990, the operations of the Soviet army in Baku ionce again confirmed it. Rallies held as a sign of protest of annexation of the Nagorno-Karabakh to Armenia were suppressed by bullets of the Soviet soldiers.

In the summer of 1990 Heydar Aliyev came to Nakhchivan. The situation was extremely tense in the autonomous republic. Nakhicevan people forced to live under conditions of severe economic blockade believed that there is a turning point in this return. Within a very short period of time and limited opportunities Heydar Aliyev was successful to make serious changes in Nakhchivan. Immediately after the election as the deputy of the Supreme Soviet of the Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic namely on his initiative the name of SSR was removed from name of the autonomous republic. Three-color flag of the Republic of Azerbaijan was adopted as a symbol of the state. On September 3, 1991, the Supreme Assembly of Nakhchivan adopted a decision on the election of Heydar Aliyev as the chairman of the Supreme Assembly.  The new head of the autonomous republic besides focusing on the solution of economic problems also fulfilled mission of ceasing of  the bloody battles on the border with Armenia.  

Since 1992, the geography of military operations conducted in the territories of Azerbaijan by Armenian armed forces was enlarged and regions of the republic one after another began to be occupied. In 1992, a terrible act of genocide in Khojaly allows you to imagine the scale of the brutality of Armenians. At this terrorist operation realized with the support of Russia's 366 infantry regiment 613 Azerbaijanis were killed. From killed at the time of the tragedy  63 were children,  106 were women, 487 people have been crippled, 1275 people were taken prisoners of war, that a large part of them were elders, women and children, 8 families were fully perished. Khojaly has been engraved in history as one of the most obvious examples of centuries-old attitude of hostility carried out by Armenians against Azerbaijanis. 
Kalbajar region was occupied on April 2, 1993. On April 6, the chairman of the UN Security Council condemned the occupation of Azerbaijan's Kalbajar Region by Armenian armed forces and demanded immediate liberation of these territories and the withdrawal of the army. But Armenia continuing the war against Azerbaijan captured Agdara in July 7. After that, the Armenians between July-October of 1993 occupied Aghdam (July 23), Fizuli (August 23), Jabrail (23 August), Gubadli (July 31) and Zangilan (October 29) , the regions surrounding Karabakh. Thus, the number of region around the Karabakh region of Azerbaijan (Shusha, Khankendi, Khojaly, Khojavend, Aghdere) reached to 7  (Lachin, Kalbajar, Aghdam, Fuzuli, Jabrail, Gubadli, Zangilan).
Azerbaijan was in need of mobilizing its military-economic and human power in the war against Armenian invaders. For this purpose Heydar Aliyev, newly returned to power, appealed to the population on radio and TV channels November 2 and serious measures political-military actions were undertaken. That enabled to radically change the events in Azerbaijani people's struggle against Armenian separatism. The attacks of Armenian troops in direction to Beylagan were rebutted in mid November 1993. As a result of successful operations of Azerbaijan army the strategically important Horadiz district and 22 villages of Fuzuli were released from enemy on January 5, 1994.
After that Azeri troops released part of Djebrayil district, Bozlu, Tekeqaya, Babashlar, Qanlykend, Chepli, Qasymbinesi, Yanshaqbine, Yanshaq, Baghirsaq, Qamyshly settlements. Chichekli Mountain and other strategic peaks were returned, Kelbadjar-Lachyn road's section till the tunnel was taken under control. In these conditions Azerbaijan signed the Bishkek protocol on May 8, 1994. Due to Azerbaijan's progress in fighting its enemy the ceasefire was reached on May 12.

As a result of Armenian aggression Azerbaijan lost 20 percent of its territory. Nearly 20,000 people died as a result of this aggression, 50,000 people were wounded and disabled, more than a million people were deprived of their land, they became internally displaced persons, 5,000 people were missed. In addition, as a result of the war and the occupation of the territories Azerbaijan was subjected to a great deal of social and economic loss. The total amount of direct and indirect losses made 60 billion U.S. dollars.
Armenian armed forces deployed in occupied Azerbaijani territories 316 tanks, 324 armored vehicles, 322 guns, 50.000 thousand staff.
Till 1995 international organizations adopted many decisions on Upper Garabagh. Security Council of the UNO adopted the resolutions No 822 (30/04/1993), 853 (29/07/1993), 874 (14/10/1993), 884 (11/11/1993) confirmed the fact of occupation of Azeri lands by Armenians and required unconditional withdrawal of forces from occupied Azerbaijani territories. But despite of all these resolutions of the UNO Armenia continues to keep these territories under occupation, actively settles these areas and so ignore the will of the international community.     
Since January 1997, the OSCE Minsk group (set at OSCE Council of Ministers meeting held in Helsinki on March 24, 1992. Azerbaijani, Armenian, Russian Federation, the United States, France, Poland, Germany, Turkey, Belarus, Finland and Sweden are members of the group. Since December 1996 it has the three co-chairs - Russia, the United States and France) created the new format consisting of three co-chairs the United States, France and Russia for negotiations. The Minsk Group developed so far the various proposals for the peaceful settlement of the conflict. But the Armenian side continuing to stretch the negotiations.  



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