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Special Executive Committee in Garabagh


A new step taken by leadership the USSR to take out Nagorno-Garabagh, an integral part of our country, from the subordination to the Azerbaijan Soviet Socialist Republic in March 1988, was reflected in the a special decision on the acceleration of socio-economic development of NGAO. With this decision not referring to any objective basis, based on the so-called reasons for this decision, the exclusive rights were granted to the Nagorno-Garabagh, a large amount of funds were allotted, a settlement of a number of problems of the region was directly assigned to the union, ministries and agencies. Such a public opinion was formed that as if the Armenians living in Nagorno-Garabagh region have the socio-economic difficulties and as a result of insufficient provision of daily needs of the local people such dissatisfactions were arisen. But everyone well knows that Nagorno-Garabagh was a region with dynamic development in comparison with other regions of the Azerbaijan Soviet Socialist Republic. Representatives of the Armenian nation were given a very wide range of opportunities and rights in the territory of Azerbaijan. They were provided with high positions in the life of the republic in different areas. It is enough to say that there were 29 deputies of the Supreme Soviet of the Azerbaijan Soviet Socialist Republic from the Armenian nationality. 61 people of Armenian nationality worked in the Azerbaijan Communist Party in different positions. As seen, the mater was not the violation of the rights of Armenians. Moscow's unjust position on Nagorno-Garabagh issue is seen clearly from these facts.

The next step of the Center towards taking Nagorno-Garabagh Autonomous Oblast out of Azerbaijan's subordination was the Decree of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR on establishment of Special form of governance in the NGAO dated January 12, 1989, the center violating the rights of Azerbaijan roughly and adopted the decision “On application of special governance form in NGAO of Azerbaijan SSR”. The decree stated that all enterprises, establishments and organizations, their affiliates and other structural units located in the territory of Nagorno-Garabagh taking into account the opinion of the Council of Ministers of the Azerbaijan Soviet Socialist Republic is given to subordination of the Committee on the issues determined by the USSR Council of Ministers. 
Such a decree was in contradiction to the USSR Constitution and its relevant articles. According to the Constitution of the USSR, the autonomous region can not be directly subordinated to central higher power and governing bodies of the Union, and was unacceptable. According to the Constitution, the autonomous republics and provinces are part of any union republic and therefore can not be removed temporarily or permanently from its subordination (Art. 86).
Thus, the temporary Special Executive Committee was organized illegally under the leadership of pro-Armenian A. I. Volski, with direct subordination to Moscow in the USSR and authorities of all state and public bodies of Azerbaijan in Nagorno-Garabagh were ceased.
Of course, absence of sharp response by Azerbaijani delegation to this decision had not a less impact on following tragic events. The decision stated that the main duty of this committee directly subordinated to the government authorities of the USSR, was to improve the situation in the region, securing the safety of citizens, ensuring continuous functioning of all enterprises and organizations, regulation of trade, domestic and construction of utilities and health care.

On January 17, 1989, the Chairman of the Council of Ministers of the USSR N. İ. Ryjkov in one of his speeches noted that the decision made is the center's assistance on both sides and it is of great importance to lift inter-national contradictions practically. With this adopted document the leadership of the Soviet Union tried to create such an impression that it is taking steps to normalize the situation in the region, and acts for creating of parity in respect of the positions of both Azerbaijan and Armenia. In fact, this decision was the preparation stage of the mass ethnic cleansing operation in the Armenian SSR and Nagorno-Garabagh Autonomous Province. Shortly after A. İ. Volski took this position weapons from Azerbaijanis in 55 settlements of NGAO were collected. And weapons brought from Armenia through the Lachin-Gorus road were distributed to the Armenians.
During the rule of A. İ .Volski 12 thousand Azerbaijanis  were removed from the city of Stepanakert,, within 3 days enterprises NGAO were subordinated to the relevant ministries and departments in Armenia. It was realized under the decision of USSR Council of Ministers, dated May 6, 1989. All of the district party committees became a part of the Armenian Communist Party. The flag, national emblem, form, etc of Azerbaijan were abolished. The flag of Armenia and coat of arms were hoisted in the territory of NKAO.
The "Artsakh" medal appeared dedicated to annexation of Nagorno-Garabagh to Armenia. Since June 13, 1989 under the full conditions created by the Special Committee the blockade of Azeri settlements began. A. İ. Volski skillfully carrying out the powers granted to him, in violation of the rights of the Constitution of the Azerbaijan SSR, in fact took Nagorno-Garabagh out of subordination of the Azerbaijan SSR, cut the connection between them, and could remove all the central leadership of the party and Soviet authorities from the issues of Nagorno-Garabagh. At the same time A. İ. Volski created an opportunity for the strengthening of anti-Azerbaijan propaganda, expansion of relations of the autonomous province with the Armenian SSR, the establishment of joint ventures, carrying out illegal building works. During the activity of Special Committee hundreds of crimes were committed in Stepanakert, in Nagorno-Garabagh and other regions and villages. When Azerbaijanis appealed him for help, he said: "Leave these places as quick as you can, do not worsen our situation."
Reflecting the treacherous activity of A. İ. Volski the Armenian representative R. Arakelov wrote: "During the 1989 the Committee of A. İ. Volski did not do any work to adjust the situation, on the contrary, the situation in Nagorno-Garabagh further aggravated and this region distanced from being the inseparable part of Azerbaijan”. Under such conditions the provocative Congress of “the representatives of Nagorno-Garabagh people" took place in Stepanakert.  Congress did not confirm the status of Nagorno-Garabagh as autonomous region within Azerbaijan, rather stated that the region is "independent union territory" and that the Constitution of the Azerbaijan SSR was declared here invalid. The "National Council" created by Congress was declared as the only people authority of the region. This step in fact was an attempt aimed at the termination of the powers of Special Committee.
These facts caused resonance in capital of Azerbaijan, in all regions and with decisions adopted in meetings it was required to abolish the Special Committee and provision of sovereign rights of Azerbaijan on Nagorno-Garabagh and to take resolute measures for it. At the insistence of the democratic forces of the Azerbaijan the USSR Supreme Soviet had abolished Special Committee in Garabagh by its decision date November 28, 1989. The administrating of the region is assigned to Organizational Commission of Azerbaijan SSR under the control of USSR Supreme Soviet and at result of lack of serious actions Armenians again begin the instigative actions and as a result the Supreme Soviet of the Armenian Soviet Socialist Republic on December 1, 1989 adopted a decision “On annexation of Nagorno-Garabagh to the Armenian SSR". On January 15, 1990, the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR declared state of emergency in Nagorno-Garabagh and the main regions. On January 20, 1990 the state of emergency was declared in Baku and the Soviet troops attacked the city and annihilated the civil population. In May 22, 1990, the USSR Council of Ministers restored the right of Azerbaijan on management of economy of region of Autonomous Region. On August 30, 1991, the Constitutional Act on State Independence of the Republic of Azerbaijan was adopted.
Decision of Azerbaijan Republic on abolishing of Nagorno-Garabagh Autonomous Oblast, and the implementation of the Law of the Supreme Soviet of Azerbaijan Republic and amendments and annexes to the Constitution of the Republic of Azerbaijan (Basic Law) were adopted on Nov 26, 1991. The law reads as follows: basing on necessity to restore sovereign rights of the Republic of Azerbaijan at the mountainous part of Garabagh, to disarm established illegal armed groups, to secure the rights of citizens of the Republic of Azerbaijan, to protect their freedom and dignity, to regulate inter-national relations, guided by the will of the people of Azerbaijan, decides:
1. Constitution of the Republic of Azerbaijan (Main Law), Article 68, Part 3, paragraph 2 , paragraph 12 of Article 104,  On the basis of Article 4 of the Constitutional Act "On state independence of the Republic of Azerbaijan", the territory of NGAO of Republic of Azerbaijan to be abolished as national territorial unit.
2. The Decree of law of Central Executive Committee of Azerbaijan "On the creation of the Nagorno-Garabagh Autonomous Oblast of Azerbaijan" dated July 7, 1923 and the law of   Azerbaijan SSR "On Nagorno-Garabagh Autonomous Oblast" dated June 16, 1981, to be declared null and void.

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