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Development of education in Garabagh

  


During the any period of XX century, the Azerbaijani government paid more attention to  Nagorno-Garabagh in comparison with the any other areas of Azerbaijan. But the Armenian leadership of Nagorno-Garabagh region had indifferent attitude in relation to Azerbaijani villages of Garabagh.
While reviewing the history of cultural development of years of 1950-1960 in Azerbaijan's Nagorno-Garabagh one can be assured in the abovementioned. During this period the main duties in education field like to strengthen the material and educational base of people education network, to provide schools with pedagogical personnel, to improve the training & education system and realization of the practical measures for improvement of education level. Thus, the educational department of NGAR had adopted a decision dated March 24, 1965 "On measure for provision of pedagogical staff of NGAR schools and strengthening the material and education base of people education network". Only in 1965 the Government of Azerbaijan had allotted for Nagorno-Garabagh education institutions’ repair 181 thousand manat, for equipping of schools with technical education means 70 thousand manats, for laboratories and libraries 82 thousand manats. In subsequent years Azerbaijani Government had increased the amount spent for development of education in NGAR. Thus, in 1930 the total funds allotted to education made 38.5 percent of the total amount but in 1950 it reached 63.7 percent (4078 thousand) qalxmısdı. During 1967-1968 academic year, the volume of funds increased by approximately 2 times and reached 9 million 625 thousand manats. This was 25 percent more than the funds allocated for education system of the Autonomous Republic of Nakhchivan. As a result, network of school-education institutions in the region expanded gradually and the number of pupils had increased. Thus, 19 new schools have been built during 1940-1960 in the Nagorno-Garabagh. The number of teachers in these years reached from 1696 to 3030, but the number of pupils decreased by up to 36974 from 40766.
During 1941-1961 the number of schools in the Autonomous Republic of Nakhchivan was increased from 196 to 198, the number of teachers from 1039 to 2018. If 2 schools were built in Nakhichevan during those years and 8 schools in Baku, then 10 schools were built and put into use in NGAO. During 1960-1961 years 300 eight-year schools were built Azerbaijan, from them 13 in  Nakhichevan Autonomous Republic, and 24 in NGAO. During this academic year, if each school had 13 teachers in NGAr, but in Nakhichevan Autonomous Republic this figure was 11. This indicator was equal to 11 on nationwide level. From archive materials it was found that the areas of newly built schools in rural areas are located in Armenian villages. In NGAO all clerical, court cases, education was carried out in the Armenian language. Azerbaijanis worked in administration at Nagorno-Garabagh had to speak Armenian, because the state documents and lectured in other official meetings were held in the Armenian language. Everywhere Azerbaijani language was suppressed by Armenian dashnaks purposefully and history, literature was deleted from their memory.

In 1970-es, the Republic of Azerbaijan had 172 pre-school children's institutions, a pioneer and schoolchildren the palace, young technicians, natural plants, schools, parks and sports schools from them 27 was in NGAO and 12 in the Nakhichevan Autonomous Republic.
Teachers from NGAO had increased their knowledge in Baku at Republican teachers training institutes from scientific and methodological point of view. It is no coincidence that in  Nagorno-Garabagh compared to 1940 the number of teachers in higher education in 1961 had reached 1094 increased by 2 times. It meant 41 percent of the total number of teachers of NGAR. But in Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic 29,9 percent of all teachers (597 people) have received higher education. This case is to be evaluated as a result of care of the government of Azerbaijan to the Nagorno-Garabagh. This figure was 38.9 percent for the Republican level.
50-60-es of the XX century some changes have been made in Nagorno-Garabagh training content. 1 hour additional time per week was given for teaching of the Armenian language in classes VIII-X. Russian language and Armenian language were given the serious attention; the training of Russian language teachers was intensified. Since 1950, 5-6 hours per week were provided for teaching of the Russian language and literature in training curricula of classes II-X.  A special attention is paid for teaching of Armenian and Russian literature, as well as literature of the Western European countries. During the academic year of 1958-1959 in secondary schools although 1 hour per week was given for teaching of "History of Azerbaijan" but in fact it wasn’t taught at all. Since 1960-1961 academic year "The public studies" subject was added to the secondary school curricula. During 1949-1950 the common seven-year education, the compulsory eight-year education was introduced in NGAR education system. Since 1966, secondary education was declared as general education. 
Network of schools in the Nagorno-Garabagh was expanded and during 1950-1951 academic years the number of schools had exceeded pre-war level. Already in 1970-1971 academic years the region had more than 67 secondary and 107 eight-year and 40 primary schools. Number of pupils in that academic year reached 40281 (from it 24452 in the villages), the number of teachers reached 2322. During the given period the attention on polytechnic training in NGAR was increased. Educational workshops at schools and education-experiment areas at rural schools were created. With the introduction of industrial training in schools thousands of qualified specialists were prepared in the region. As a result of investigations it is known that in the 50-60-ies of XX century the quality of products of silk factory, electrical products factory, shoe factory and other enterprises of NGAR significantly increased in comparison with the previous period. This is explained by the fact that these enterprises were run by the highly qualified technical and general educated new generation. Young people graduating from vocational schools had got certain practical skills. Only Khankendi vocational schools had trained more than 3 thousand skilled workers for the national economy in various fields.  
1 of each 3 school graduates of Garabagh had continued their education in universities and institutes of Azerbaijan, Armenia, Moscow, Leningrad, Kiev, Minsk, Riga, and Tashkent. Already at the late of 70 years the number of experts working in the national economy of NGAO was 8 thousand people.
During the years after the Second World War throughout Azerbaijan, including Nagorno-Garabagh higher education was further developed. In 1938 the establishment of the Institute of Teachers of Khankendi played a major role in the provision of provincial schools with higher education experts. For the first time the Institute had 15 teacher, 150 students but later 3 departments were created in 1950.. During the years 1940-1950 the number of students of Khankendi Institute of Teachers reached 450, and the number of teachers 60. The Institute had Armenian language and literature, Russian language and literature, physics, mathematics, history, nature and geography departments. Next new faculties of the Institute of Teachers (pedagogics and methods of primary education, general and technical subjects) was established in the region. In 1970, the number of teachers, as well as students of the Institute of Teachers of Khankendi had increased by 2 times compared to 1950.
50-60-ies of XX century, the number of specialized secondary education institutions had increased. At those educational institutions the industrial, construction, transport and agriculture specialists were trained. Thus, in 1927 two vocational schools with 436 students functioned in Nagorno-Garabagh, but in 1940 the number of such schools reached 4 and students 879.  In 60-es one more vocational school was established in region, already in 1970 the number of students reached 2357, and number of graduates had reached 390.
Shusha Cultural Education Scholl had a great role in provision of  Nagorno-Garabagh's schools with  expertise in specialized secondary education. This educational institution was established in 1921 as the Teachers Seminary in Shusha, and since 1931 it is called as pedagogical technical school. In 1927-1928 academic years the Armenian section started functioning in the College. Since 1931, Shusha Cultural Education School was named in 1938 after M. Azizbeyov. The college prepared teachers of primary schools, libraries and cultural and educational officials, pioneer leaders of the group. In 70-ies of XX century, the College had trained 500 students. The number of teachers was 60. During the period mentioned, College of Agriculture functioned in Khankendi and Shusha, medicine and music schools in Khankendi, as well as construction school.

Since 1969, preparatory departments was established at the high school for worker, collective-farmer and for those who are demobilized.
Thus, in 1950-1960, in comparison with other regions of Azerbaijan, the level of education was higher in Nagorno-Garabagh and rapidly developed. At that time the transition to seven-year, eight-year compulsory education had occurred. The network of higher education was expanded and number of personnel of various specialization consisted of Armenian, Russian and other nationalities significantly increased in Garabagh. At the same time, special attention was paid on the deployment of the personnel under the "internationalism" mask. Placement of non-Azeri staff in local bodies of the region had a serious impact on strengthening of supports of the Soviet empire. Either in the center or in NGAR those non-Azeris headed the education used to carry out propaganda about “absence of future of education in Azerbaijan language” and at result of these activities the education system was damaged severely. Also, the indifferent attitude of those villages where Azerbaijanis lived led to artificial emptying of those villages.



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