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About fine arts of Garabagh



The most ancient samples of material culture of Karabakh region, which is the ancient land of Azerbaijan, dates back to the VIII millennium BC. Ancient megalith monuments, caves, protected buildings, burial mounds, metal tools, pottery, jewelry art have been typical for Azerbaijani settlement. At monumental rock culture the aesthetic imagination of the people expressed in pictures. Azykh cave near Fuzuli city proves that Azerbaijan is one of the most ancient sites in the world. Among the most ancient examples of fine art pictures of the beginning of the Bronze Age (3rd millennium BC) in Parichınqıl and Ayıchınqıl mountains around Zalkha lake of Kalbajar regions can be shown. The decorative art in the Middle Ages made a integrity with decorative applied art in Nagorno-Karabakh. Among the oldest examples of fine art are pottery, stone and metal products decorating decorative patterns, drawings, qabartma (landscape drawings), which are the most important monuments. Of these, two-headed round deer figure (in Khojavand region, Dolanlar village) is distinguished with its elegance and artistic maturity (VIII-VII centuries BC). During this period, various types and forms of artistic glass products - decorative plates, piyalas, and women’s accessories were available in Karabakh. Engraving and sculpture samples are widely spread in Albanian (Caucasian) period. The plastic forms are often found in compilation of some art metal products (torevtika). In the samples of circular and raised sculpture (bronze and stone) in this period human and animal pictures, life, scenes of hunting and religious rites are dominant.

In connection with spreading of Islam since the VII century, architectural complexes, palaces, castle, mosques and tombs were built in Karabakh. In the decorative design of the buildings calligraphy inscription, ornaments, tiles, and wide range of raised elements were used.
The fine art traditions of Karabakh having deep roots back to ancient times had stored artistic experience of many generations. It includes petroglyphs, tools with a rich decoration and household objects, of carpet weaving, jewelry, etc. unique in its beauty and diversity of the art in Kalbajar, Aghdam, Lachin regions. It is not possible to remind about architectural monuments like mosques, mausoleums, palaces, and glazed tile patterns also distinguished by its elegance and fineness. All of these created a special "gene pool” of artistic culture of the people of Azerbaijan", forms its rich heritage.
Decorative art of the Middle Ages-Karabakh was in the organic relations with decorative application art, as well as architecture. Monumental wall paintings in town of Shusha reached our days are closely connected with the traditions of folk art. In the works of Russian painters of the XIX century V.V.Vereshagin and G.G.Gagarin who visited Azerbaijan in XIX century a description of the architectural monuments of the Shusha town can be seen.
Further qualitative changes in description art of Karabakh, took place in the in XX century (especially at the beginning of the century): in the same period the process of the emergence in the development of this new kind of art, genres and forms, especially democratic satirical graphics and easel painting can be observed.
This heritage was enriched with new trends from the middle of the 19th century. In this period, under the influence of growing Russian-Azerbaijani arts and cultural relations, Karabakh arts gradually underwent qualitative changes, resulting in new realist features appearing in national arts. The talented painter, Mohsun Navvab, the poetess and painter, Natavan, and many others are the main representatives of this period. In the process of artistic creation, the works of the Karabakh painters, Mir Mohsun Navvab and Khurshidbanu Natavan, are a unique historical event.

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